Archive for ETHNIC

Easy Phở

Phở is a Vietnamese noodle soup made with an intensely flavorful broth poured over flat rice noodles and garnished with thinly sliced meat.  A friend once told me that what I just described is considered the “northern Vietnamese Phở” whereas the “southern Vietnamese” version adds aromatic herbs.  I like the southern version myself.  The more vegetables and herbs, the better. 🙂

Phở also varies with the types of condiments, vegetables and noodles used.  Most Vietnamese restaurants serve phở with a side of bean sprouts, Thai basil (not the sweet basil commonly added to pasta sauces), cilantro or coriander leaves, and various hot chili peppers.  You might see a squeeze bottle filled with hoisin sauce, or get a small bowl of fish sauce served alongside your phở.  Hot pepper sauce in lieu of fresh hot peppers is also an option.  As for the varieties of noodles used, rice is most common, but you can use potato noodles as well.

I’ve also had phở a little more on the sweet side, and other restaurants I’ve been to serve their phở less sweet or not sweet at all.  My preference is to omit the sugar.  I like a savory and aromatic broth, not a sweet one.

You can use beef or chicken in your phở.  Your choice of meat will determine your choice of broth.  My family likes beef phở so I use beef broth.  Chicken phở, logically, uses chicken broth.

Speaking of broth, I think this is what determines a GOOD Phở from an average or so-so one.  You can serve as many different herbs and vegetables as you like with the broth, but if the broth is flavorless, you might as well call your concoction a tea, or water infused with herbs.   As your broth cooks, get a whiff of it — if the aroma doesn’t make you want to dunk your face into the pot, then you need to add some spice to it.

You can find my complete recipe at the bottom of this post.  Give it a try.  I think you’ll like it. 🙂

These are the ingredients I like to use.image

If you have the time, homemade beef broth from scratch is always best, but you can use good quality ready-made broth.  To save time, I use 100% natural, low sodium broth.  If you want a less concentrated broth, you can use 1/2 broth and 1/2 water, but you may need to add some salt.  Just make sure you have enough liquid as called for in my recipe below.



Fish sauce goes into the broth, but a little goes a long way.  You only need a couple of tablespoons of this pungent but flavorful sauce.  Don’t omit it…while you can’t really tell it’s in the broth, you CAN tell that something is missing from it if you don’t add it.  I recommend using Three Crabs Brand fish sauce.  It’s not as pungent as most other brands.



Look in the Hispanic foods section of your grocery store for a small package of cilantro cubes.  It will most likely be next to other bouillon-type seasonings.  I add fresh cilantro leaves to the finished dish, but adding cilantro seasoning to the broth gives it a greater depth of flavor.

Anise seed and star anise

I also use anise seed to flavor my broth.  You can find it in the spice section of your grocery store.  If you have some star anise already on hand, you can use that instead of anise seed, but you’ll need 3 whole star anise to every tablespoon of anise seed for my recipe.  If these ingredients are new to you, star anise and anise seeds are two very different spices.  Anise is an herb in the parsley family and produces small seeds with a strong, licorice-like flavor.  Star anise is the star-shaped fruit of a tree that’s a member of the magnolia family.  The two spices contain the same flavor compound, a substance called anethole, but whole star anise is a bit more bitter in my opinion.

whole clovesWhole cloves go into the broth, and like the other ingredients I described above, this packs quite a flavor punch.  You only need a few — I use about 6 in my recipe.  If you’re not familiar with whole cloves, you might recognize it as those tiny wood-like spikes studding a baked ham.  See the picture on the right for what it looks like.  You can find it in the spice section of your grocery store.



You’ll need a few more aromatic and savory ingredients to flavor the broth. Into the pot goes some whole cinnamon sticks, chopped garlic (lots of it), and fresh ginger.

Pictured on the left (clockwise from the top) are Whole cloves, cinnamon sticks, garlic, ginger, cilantro cubes, and anise seeds.



At the local Asian market where I live, there are several different brands and types of dried noodles.  Look for the package that says “Bánh Phở”.  This is the brand I buy (see the photo on the right).  The noodles are in little bundles within the package.  I cook about half the package for my family of four, estimating about two bundles per person (my husband, who usually orders a LARGE bowl of phở at Vietnamese restaurants, gets three bundles).

Now let’s get down to the business of making Phở.

First, you’ll need to get the broth going.  Place the broth (or broth-water mixture) in a large soup pot.


Add the fish sauce and the rest of the herbs and aromatics (cloves, cinnamon sticks, garlic, ginger, cilantro cubes and onions).  Cover the pot and turn the heat to medium-high.  Bring this to a rolling boil.  Most of the herbs will sink to the bottom of the pot as the broth cooks.  If you have a small cheesecloth, you can place all of the aromatics in it, creating a sachet d’espice.  Or, just before serving, pour the broth through a strainer and into a large bowl, discard the aromatics then return the broth to the pot.  Bring the broth to a boil again before serving.  I actually don’t bother straining this out.  You can safely eat the cooked onions and any anise seeds that find their way into your bowl.  However, I recommend discarding any cloves, cinnamon and large pieces of ginger that accidentally get poured into your bowl.


While the broth is happily cooking, prepare the vegetables.  Rinse the leafy greens and bean sprouts.  Slice the onions and peppers.  Arrange everything on a large platter.


Slice the limes into wedges.  That’s hoisin sauce in the little bowl.  My youngest daughter and husband like stirring some hoisin sauce into their broth.  My oldest daughter and I prefer it without.


Slice the beef as thinly as you can.  It’s easier to create thin slices when the meat is still partially frozen.  I like using flank steak, but you can use any cut of lean beef.  The reason for slicing the beef as thin as possible is because it’s cooked only when you pour the boiling broth over it.  If you prefer to cook the beef instead of adding it raw, it’s simple — just add the sliced beef to the pot of boiling broth.


Once the vegetables and meat are prepped, it’s time to get the noodles going.

Set a medium pot filled 3/4 full with water to boil.

Fill a large bowl with hot water.  Add the dry noodles to the bowl.  Let the noodles soak in the hot water for about 5 minutes, or until pliable.


As soon as the pot of water comes to a boil, and once the noodles are soft and pliable, you’ll need to cook the noodles.  Place some of the noodles in a metal colander or strainer.  Use a strainer that can fit easily into your pot of boiling water.  You’re going to submerge the strainer — noodles and all — into the hot water.  Do not dump the noodles into the pot.  The reason for using the strainer is so that you can easily lift the noodles out of the pot.


Keep the noodles submerged in the boiling water for about a minute.  The noodles don’t take long to cook.  Lift the strainer out of the pot, allowing the water to drain out.


Place the drained noodles into your serving bowl.


Add some sliced beef to the bowl.


Pour the boiling-hot broth over the meat and noodles.


It’s important to keep the broth at a rolling boil right up until you’re ready to serve.  The hot liquid cooks the raw meat.  If you’re cooking the beef in the broth, just be sure to scoop out some meat and pour it into the bowl along with the broth.


Add some of the sliced onion to the bowl.  The hot broth will begin to cook this too.


Now you can add the rest of your vegetables.  I like adding a couple of handfuls of bean sprouts to my bowl.


Add some cilantro leaves and Thai basil, tearing up large leaves into small pieces.  Add sliced peppers if you like your soup spicy.  My husband adds a Chamorro twist to this by stirring in lots of Tabasco sauce AND donne’ dinanche. 🙂


Squeeze some lime juice over the top, and add some hoisin sauce too if you’d like.


Serve and ENJOY!


Easy Phở
Prep time
Cook time
Total time
Recipe type: Soup
Cuisine: Vietnamese
Serves: 4
  • 3 quarts beef broth (4 quarts if you prefer more broth than noodles)
  • 2 tablespoons fish sauce
  • 1 tablespoon anise seeds
  • 6 whole cloves
  • 2 cinnamon sticks
  • 2 tablespoons chopped garlic
  • 6-inch piece of ginger, peeled and sliced
  • 1 medium onion, cut into large pieces
  • Salt and pepper, to taste
  • ½ small onion, very thinly sliced
  • 4 cups fresh bean sprouts
  • 1 bunch cilantro, leaves only
  • 1 bunch Thai basil, leaves only
  • 2 limes
  • ½ pound flank steak or other lean beef
  • 8 small bundles dry phở noodles
  • 1 jalapeño pepper, sliced
  • 1 hot red chili pepper (Thai, Dragon, or other pepper), sliced
  • Sriracha pepper sauce
  • Hoisin sauce
Prepare the broth:
  1. Place the broth in a large soup pot. Add the fish sauce, anise seed, cloves, cinnamon sticks, garlic, ginger and onion. Bring to a rolling boil.
Prepare the vegetables and beef:
  1. Rinse the bean sprouts, cilantro and Thai basil. Remove the thick, large stems from the cilantro and basil. Place the clean vegetables on a large serving platter along with the sliced onion and peppers.
  2. Slice the limes into thin wedges. Place on the serving platter.
  3. Slice the beef as thin as you can. It's easier to slice partially frozen meat then when it's thawed out completely. Place onto a separate serving dish.
Prepare the noodles:
  1. Fill a medium sized pot ¾ full of water; bring to a boil. Meanwhile, soak the dry noodles in a bowl of hot water. Once the noodles are pliable, place in a metal strainer, one that can fit into the pot with boiling water, and one that can be removed easily. Dip the metal strainer (with the noodles) into the boiling water. Let the noodles cook for a minute then lift the strainer from the pot and allow the water to drain. Place the noodles into your serving bowl.
Assemble the soup:
  1. Place the beef slices on top of the noodles. Pour the hot broth over the meat; the boiling hot broth will cook the raw meat. If you prefer not to use raw meat, you can add the slices of beef to the pot of hot broth to cook it.
  2. Add the thinly sliced onion next, then add the bean sprouts, cilantro and Thai basil.
  3. Add sliced peppers and pepper sauce if you like your soup spicy.
  4. Drizzle some hoisin sauce over the top if you want your broth a bit more salty.
  5. Enjoy!


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Chicken Macaroni Salad

Macaroni salad one of my family’s favorite side dishes.  There are many, many macaroni salad variations, but we’re simple…we like two specific kinds.  The first is a Hawaiian style macaroni salad and the other is Filipino style Macaroni salad.

My recipe below is for a very basic Filipino macaroni salad.  It has chicken, cheese, pineapple, and sweet relish, but you can also add other ingredients such as hard-boiled eggs, ham, and raisins.  Some of my Filipino friends also add a spoonful or more of sweetened condensed milk, but I don’t like mine too sweet (to me, the relish and pineapples add just the right amount of sweetness) so I don’t add it.

This dish is best made the night before you intend to serve it.  An overnight stay in the ‘fridge allows all the pasta to absorb all the delicious flavors.

I like to add lots of chicken (more than what I have in my recipe below) whenever I want to serve this as my main dish.  It’s great for packed lunches, and it’s also a quick and easy pot-luck dish.

Give my recipe a try.  I think you’ll like it. 🙂

Chicken Macaroni Salad



  • 1 large chicken breast
  • Salt, black pepper, and garlic powder (for the chicken)
  • 1/4 cup all-purpose flour
  • 2 tablespoons vegetable oil
  • 5 cups cooked macaroni
  • 1 teaspoon black pepper (for the macaroni salad)
  • 1 10-ounce jar sweet pickle relish, with as much juice squeezed out as possible
  • 1 20-ounce can crushed pineapple, with as much juice squeezed out as possible
  • 7 ounces shredded cheddar cheese
  • 1 1/2 cups mayonnaise

Optional Ingredients:

  • 1/2 cup raisins
  • 2 hard boiled eggs, diced


NOTE:  The photos below of the chicken show around 9 or 10 chicken breasts.  We like to cook several chicken breasts at a time so that we can use it throughout the week in various dishes.  We used one breast to make this salad; about 6 breasts were used in my daughter’s Chicken Marsala, and a couple more went into my daughter’s other dish, Mac-n-cheese with Chicken.  Cooking in bulk is a great way to save time during the week, especially if you’re pressed for time each morning.  It saves time at night too, when you’re trying to prepare dinner after a long day at work or school.

Prepare the chicken.

Place the chicken breast into a ziplock bag.  Use a kitchen mallet to flatten the chicken into about 1/4-inch thickness.


Sprinkle both sides of the chicken breast with salt, black pepper and garlic powder.


Dredge the seasoned chicken breast in the flour, covering both sides.

image  image

 Place a skillet over medium-high heat.  Add the vegetable oil to the pan.


 Place the chicken in the pan when the pan and oil are hot.  Reduce the heat to medium.


 Cook the chicken for about 4-6 minutes on each side.

Turn occasionally to evenly brown both sides.


 Shred or thinly slice the cooked chicken and set it aside.



Prepare the macaroni salad.

Place the shredded chicken breast, cooked macaroni, black pepper, relish, crushed pineapple, cheese and mayo in a large mixing bowl.  Add in any other optional ingredients.

Gently fold all of the ingredients together.  Refrigerate for 30 minutes to an hour to allow the flavors to meld.

Serve and ENJOY!



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Panko Crusted Fried Fish & Shrimp

Our family loves seafood.  One of our favorite ways to serve fish and shrimp is to coat them in panko breadcrumbs and fry them until golden brown and crispy.

Serve this with hot steamed rice, some sweet dipping sauce (similar to honey walnut shrimp sauce), and fina’denne’ and you’ve got yourself an amazing seafood meal.

Give my sister-in-law Min’s recipe a try.  I think you’ll like it. 🙂

This recipe makes enough for a family of 4 plus leftover for lunch the next day.

Panko Crusted Fried Fish & Shrimp

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Ingredients for the Fried Shrimp:

  • 1 cup Korean batter mix (Tuigim or Twigim Garu); see photo below
  • 1 tablespoon Dashida Korean seasoning
  • 1 tablespoon onion powder
  • 1 tablespoon garlic powder
  • 1 teaspoon black pepper
  • 1/2 cup milk
  • 30 ounces raw shrimp, peeled and deveined
  • 1 bag panko crumbs


Ingredients for the Fried Fish:

  • 1 cup Korean batter mix (Tuigim or Twigim Garu); see photo below
  • 1 tablespoon Dashida Korean seasoning
  • 1 tablespoon onion powder
  • 1 tablespoon garlic powder
  • 1 teaspoon black pepper
  • 1 cup milk
  • 24 ounces fish filets (tilapia, basa, and orange roughy work well)
  • 1 bag panko crumbs


Ingredients for the Dipping Sauce:

  • 2 tablespoons sweetened condensed milk
  • 3 tablespoons pineapple juice
  • 2 tablespoons kewpie mayo


Other Ingredients:

  • Oil, for frying


Tuigim Garu, Korean batter mix, is used to make a batter to coat the shrimp and fish for frying.  This is what the package looks like (the bag on the left).

The bag on the right is called Pang Garu, and is a type of panko breadcrumbs.  The shrimp and fish are coated in breadcrumbs after coating it in the batter.  You can use this or any other brand of panko breadcrumbs.


Rinse and clean the shrimp and fish filets, then set them aside in separate, shallow dishes.  I like using meaty white fish such as  basa or tilapia; orange roughy is good too.

Add the dry batter mix and seasonings directly over the shrimp.  Toss the shrimp and dry ingredients together then add the milk.  Keep tossing it all together until the dry ingredients are no longer lumpy and a thick batter coats the shrimp.  Set aside.

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In another pan, place the remaining batter mix and dry ingredients; this will be mixed into a batter to coat the fish filets.  You don’t want to create the batter WITH the fish as you do with the shrimp because you don’t want to break up the fish filets.  Instead, mix the batter in a separate pan and dip the fish into the batter before coating with panko.

Add the milk to the dry batter mixture, mixing until you get a smooth batter.

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Place the fish filets into the batter.  Ensure each filet is coated with batter.

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Create an assembly line with the shrimp, fish, and the breadcrumbs.

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Designate one hand as the “wet hand” and the other as the “dry hand.”  Use the wet hand to place the shrimp and fish into the pan of breadcrumbs.  Use the dry hand to cover the shrimp and fish with breadcrumbs.

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Be sure to generously pat the breadcrumbs into the batter-covered fish and shrimp.

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Carefully drop the coated fish and shrimp into hot oil.  Do not overcrowd the pan.

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Fry the fish about 3 minutes on each side or until golden brown.  Fry the shrimp until golden brown all over.

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Make the dipping sauce.

In small microwave-safe bowl, mix together the sweetened condensed milk, pineapple juice and kewpie mayonnaise.  You can use regular mayonnaise if you don’t find any kewpie.


Heat the mixture in the microwave for 20 seconds or until it starts to bubble.  Remove from the microwave and stir until creamy.  Serve with fried shrimp and fish.




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Authentic Korean Cabbage Kimchi

My Korean sister-in-law, Min, is an excellent cook.  She’s the one who taught me how to make all my favorite Korean dishes, like Jap Chae, Bulgogi,  Denjang Chigae, Kimchi Chigae, Kim Bap, Kimchi Fried Rice and lots more!

This is Min’s cabbage kimchi recipe.  She makes different kinds of kimchi — cabbage, radish (my personal favorite), and cucumber — and they are all better than the cheap jarred stuff you buy in your grocery store.

It’s a bit labor-intensive, but it’s worth it in the end.  Eat it as a side dish with your favorite meals, or let it ferment a little longer and use it in Kimchi Chigae.  A small note about kimchi fermentation — kimchi stored at room temperature will ferment faster than refrigerated kimchi.  Refrigerated kimchi still ferments, but at a slower rate.

The photos below make it appear that this makes a ton of kimchi.  Once the leaves wilt, however, you’ll end up with enough kimchi to fill a large bowl or jar (like the size of large pickle jars that are sold in wholesale grocery stores such as COSTCO).  There is a Korean store here that sells homemade kimchi in those large jars, but they are so expensive!  It’s so much more economical to make your own at home.

Don’t worry about the quantity this makes.  The great thing about kimchi is that it lasts a long time (just keep it stored in an airtight container)! 😉 Or, you can be a nice friend, family member or neighbor and share some!

Give Min’s recipe a try.  I think you’ll like it. 🙂

Authentic Korean Cabbage Kimchi


Rice Glue:

  • 2 cups sweet rice grains
  • 4 cups water

Cabbage plus brine:

  • 3 large heads nappa cabbage
  • 4 cups coarse sea salt
  • 8 cups water

Kimchi sauce:

  • 4 bunches green onions (about 12-16 stalks), cut into pieces about 1 1/2″ long
  • 1 bunch chives, cut the same size as the green onions (1 1/2″ long)
  • 3- or 4-inch piece of ginger, peeled and grated
  • 18 cloves fresh garlic, mashed or very finely minced
  • 6 tablespoons anchovy sauce
  • 6 tablespoons salted shrimp or shrimp sauce
  • 6 cups Korean red pepper flakes

This is what the salted shrimp and anchovy sauce look like:

salted shrimp and anchovy sauce


Place the grains of rice in a small bowl. Cover the rice with water (use 2 cups of water; save the other 2 cups for later). Let the rice soak for several minutes while you prepare the cabbage.  Eventually you’ll make a rice paste or glue of sorts with the soaked rice grains.  This is a necessary ingredient to help the kimchi sauce ingredients stick to the cabbage leaves.

sweet rice  sweet rice

Separate and rinse the cabbage leaves.  Remove the core at the bottom of each head of cabbage.  Cut the leaves into pieces about 2″x4″.

Generously salt the cabbage leaves with the coarse sea salt.  Pour the water over the salted cabbage leaves.  Soak the leaves in the brine for about 30 minutes until the leaves wilt.  After the leaves have wilted, drain out all of the water.  Place the cabbage in a large strainer basket and rinse thoroughly.

salt the cabbage  cabbage brine

Now, let’s get back to making the rice glue.  Place the rice and water into a blender.  Min uses a VitaMix, but you can use any blender.  Here’s a tip: if your blender can grind ice (for slushy drinks), then it can probably grind rice with no issues.

You will need to add about 2 more cups of water to the blender.

soaked rice  rice and water

Grind the rice-water mixture until you get a smooth consistency.  Pour the rice mixture back into the bowl.

grind the rice  rice puree

Microwave the rice mixture for 2 minutes on High.  Set it aside to cool.  The rice paste will thicken slightly as it cools.

cook the rice  cook rice

Place the onions, chives, garlic and ginger into the bowl of drained and rinsed cabbage leaves.

add onions chives garlic ginger

Sprinkle the ground pepper flakes into the bowl.


Add the anchovy sauce and salted shrimp paste.

anchovy sauce  shrimp paste

Min also adds some ajinomoto (MSG), but this is optional.  If you choose to add it, sprinkle about 2 tablespoons into the bowl.


Add the cooled rice paste to the bowl.

add the rice paste

Now this is important:  Put on a pair of CLEAN plastic gloves.  Don’t even think about using the same gloves you use to wash dishes with!  Buy a new pair or better yet, buy a box of disposable cooking gloves.  You are going to mix this by hand and you don’t want to get any hot pepper on your hands (trust me).  Mix it thoroughly, ensuring each piece of cabbage is covered with the kimchi sauce.

mix  mix

Place the kimchi into a resealable container.  Let the kimchi ferment for at least a day and a half before serving.  Remember, kimchi ferments faster at room temperature than if refrigerated.  The longer the fermentation time, the more sour the kimchi becomes.  I like my kimchi on the sour side, so I let mine ferment for about a week before eating.

This will keep for several weeks in the refrigerator.


finished product


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Siopao is a favorite snack on Guam that is of Chinese (Cha Siu Bao, or Chinese BBQ Pork Buns) or Philippine origin (Siopao Asado).  The Philippine version of these buns are normally steamed, while the Chinese version of these delicious snacks are also baked.

You can prepare siopao COMPLETELY from scratch, but there are a couple of shortcuts I take to make the preparation quicker and easier.  I do make the dough from scratch, but I save a whole lot of time by using leftover pulled pork from my Hawaiian Pulled Pork recipe.  Unless you are feeding a large crowd, you will most certainly have enough pulled pork leftover to make siopao (I use a 9-10 pound pork shoulder to make my pulled pork).  All I do is add a few more ingredients to the pulled pork to turn it into a sweet pork filling for my siopao. 

Give my recipe a try.  I think you’ll like it. 🙂

Pork Siopao

Siopao - 16   Siopao - 18


  • A doubled batch of my yeast donuts dough recipe (find it here)


  • About 4 cups leftover Hawaiian Pulled Pork (find my recipe here)
  • NOTE:  To make chicken siopao, use shredded cooked chicken (I like to use a rotisserie chicken) instead of pulled pork
  • 1 tablespoon chopped garlic
  • 1/4 cup sugar
  • 1/4 cup soy sauce
  • 2 tablespoons oyster sauce
  • 1 tablespoon hoisin sauce
  • 1/4 cup water mixed with 2 tablespoons corn starch
  • Optional:  6 hard boiled eggs, quartered (so you have 24 pieces of boiled eggs)


  • Parchment paper, cut into 3-inch squares, 24-36 pieces (amount depends on the size of your siopao)
  • Steamer basket or pot


Make my Hawaiian Pulled Pork recipe, then set aside about 4 cups of pulled pork.  Enjoy the rest of the pulled pork for your dinner.  In the next day or two, used the leftover pulled pork to make siopao. 🙂


Prepare the dough using my yeast donuts recipe.  Ensure you double all of the ingredients required for my yeast donuts recipe.  Follow the directions up to step number 5 (letting the dough rise).

Siopao - 05

While you’re waiting for the dough to rise, prepare the filling.  Place the leftover pulled pork into a medium sized pot.  Add the garlic, sugar, soy sauce, oyster sauce and hoisin sauce.  Bring the mixture to a boil then quickly stir in the water-corn starch mixture.  Return the mixture to a boil, cooking until it thickens.  Set the pork filling aside to cool (I placed the filling into a bowl and placed it in the freezer to cool while my dough was rising).

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Cut the dough into 24 pieces (for larger siopao) or 36 pieces (for smaller siopao).  I made 24 larger pieces that measured about 4 inches in diameter after it was cooked/steamed.

Siopao - 10

Use a rolling pin to flatten each piece of dough into a circle about 6 inches in diameter.  Keep the center of the circle slightly thicker than the edge.  Place two tablespoons of filling in the middle of the dough.  Optional:  Add a piece of egg on top of the filling.

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Pull the dough up around the filling, pinching to seal.  The sealed part becomes the bottom of the siopao.

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Place the siopao on a piece of parchment paper, pinched side down.  Continue filling the remaining pieces of dough.

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After all the dough is filled, place in your steamer basket.  I can fit about 6 large siopao in mine.  Don’t let the siopao touch the sides of the steamer, and leave about an inch or two between each one.  Place a clean kitchen towel between the steamer pot and the lid to prevent the condensation from dripping back onto the siopao.  Steam for 20 minutes then remove from the steamer to cool.

Siopao - 14

Enjoy while still warm. 🙂

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Freeze any uneaten (and already steamed) siopao.  To reheat, defrost the siopao in the refrigerator then reheat in the microwave for 30 seconds.

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