Conversions and Abbreviations

Here are some useful Conversion Charts.

Temperature Conversions:

  • 275°F = 140°C = gas mark 1
  • 300°F = 150°C = gas mark 2
  • 325°F = 165°C = gas mark 3
  • 350°F = 180°C = gas mark 4
  • 375°F = 190°C = gas mark 5
  • 400°F = 200°C = gas mark 6
  • 425°F = 220°C = gas mark 7
  • 450°F = 230°C = gas mark 9
  • 475°F = 240°C = gas mark 10

 

Volume Equivalents:

  • 60 drops = 1 teaspoon
  • 1 dash = 1/16 teaspoon
  • 1 pinch = 1/8 teaspoon
  • 1 teaspoon = 1/3 tablespoon = 1/6 ounce
  • 2 teaspoons = 2/3 tablespoon = 1/3 ounce
  • 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon = 1/2 ounce
  • 2 tablespoons = 1/8 cup = 1 ounce = 1 standard coffee scoop
  • 4 tablespoons = 1/4 cup = 2 ounces
  • 5 1/3 tablespoons = 1/3 cup = 2 2/3 ounces
  • 8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup = 4 ounces
  • 16 tablespoons = 1 cup = 8 ounces
  • 2 cups =1 pint = 1/2 quart = 16 ounces
  • 4 cups = 2 pints = 1 quart = 32 ounces
  • 16 cups = 8 pints = 4 quarts = 1 gallon

 

Weight Conversions:

Dry Ingredients:

  • All-Purpose Flour: 1 cup = 4 1/2 oz
  • Bread Flour: 1 cup = 4 1/2 oz
  • Whole Wheat Flour: 1 cup = 4 1/2 oz
  • Cake Flour: 1 cup = 4 oz
  • Pastry Flour: 1 cup = 4 oz
  • White Granulated Sugar: 1 cup = 7 oz
  • Brown Sugar: 1 cup = 7 1/2 oz
  • Powdered Sugar: 1 cup = 4 oz
  • Chopped Nuts: 1 cup = 4 oz

Liquid Ingredients:

  • Most liquids: 1 cup = 8 oz
  • Water: 1 cup = 8 oz
  • Milk: 1 cup = 8 oz
  • Cream: 1 cup = 8 oz
  • Yogurt: 1 cup = 8 oz
  • Sour Cream: 1 cup = 8 oz
  • Honey: 1 cup = 12 oz
  • Oil: 1 cup = 7.5 oz
  • Butter: 1 cup = 8 oz

 

Common Ingredient Equivalents:

Butter:

  • 1 stick = 4 ounces = 8 tablespoons = 1/2 cup
  • 4 sticks = 16 ounces = 32 tablespoons = 2 cups = 1 pound

Chocolate:

  • 1 ounce = 1/4 cup grated
  • 6 ounces chips = 1 cup chips
  • 1 pound cocoa = 4 cups cocoa

Creams:

  • Half and half = 1/2 milk + 1/2 cream = 10.5 to 18 percent butterfat
  • Light cream = 18 percent butterfat
  • Light whipping cream = 30 to 26 percent butterfat
  • Heavy cream = whipping cream = 36 percent or more butterfat
  • Double cream = extra-thick double cream = clotted or Devonshire cream = 42 percent butterfat

Eggs:

  • 1 large egg (approximately) = 1 tablespoon yolk + 2 tablespoons white
  • 1 cup = 4 jumbo = 4 to 5 extra-large = 5 large = 5 to 6 medium = 7 small

Flour:

  • 1 pound = 4 cups all-purpose or bread flours = 4 3/4 cups cake flour
  • 1 cup sifted cake flour = 7/8 cup sifted all-purpose
  • 1+ cup self-rising flour = 1 cup sifted all-purpose flour + 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder + 1/2 teaspoon salt

Lemon:

  • 1 lemon = 1 to 3 tablespoons juice, 1 to 1 1/2 teaspoons grated zest
  • 4 large lemons = 1 cup juice = 1/4 cup grated zest

Sugars:

  • 1 pound white = 2 cups white = 454 grams
  • 1 pound packed brown = 2 1/4 cups packed brown
  • 1 cup packed brown = 1 cup white
  • 1 pound superfine sugar = 1 cup white sugar = 190 grams
  • 1 pound powdered sugar = 3 1/2 to 4 cups
  • 1 3/4 cups powdered sugar = 1 cup white sugar
  • 1 cup powdered sugar = 80 grams
  • 100 grams white sugar = 1/2 cup

Yeast:

  • 1 cake = 3/5 ounce = 1 packet dry = 2 1/4 to 2 1/2 teaspoons dry

 

Ingredient Substitutions:

  • Baking Powder, double-acting, 1 teaspoon: 
    • substitute with 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 5/8 teaspoon cream of tartar
  • Butter, 1 cup:  substitute with
    • 1 cup mayonnaise
    • 1 cup vegetable shortening
    • 1 cup applesauce
  • Buttermilk, 1 cup:
    • substitute with 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice and enough milk to make 1 cup total liquid (mix and let stand for 5 minutes)
  • Chocolate, unsweetened, 1 ounce:
    • substitute with 3 tablespoons cocoa powder plus 1 tablespoon butter/margarine/vegetable oil
  • Egg, 1 large:  substitute with:
    • 2 tablespoons mayonnaise
    • 1 tablespoon ground chia seeds mixed with 3 tablespoons water (mix and let stand for 10 minutes)
    • 1/2 cup liquid egg substitute (like Egg Beaters)
  • Flour, Cake, 1 cup:
    • substitute with 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
  • Flour, Self-Rising, 1 cup:
    • substitute with 1 cup minus 2 teaspoons all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • Garlic, 1 clove:
    • substitute with 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder
  • Powdered Sugar (or Confectioner’s Sugar), 1 cup:
    • substitute with 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch (process in a food processor until powdery)

 

Common Abbreviations:

  • Cup = c.
  • Each = ea.
  • Ounce = oz.
  • Package = pkg.
  • Pieces = pcs.
  • Pound = lb. or #
  • Tablespoon = T. or Tbsp.
  • Teaspoon = t. or tsp.

 

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